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CAS 94118-83-9 Enzyme Preparation,
94118-83-9 Role Of Pyruvate Kinase,
CAS 94118-83-9 Enzyme Preparation Enzyme The role of pyruvate kinase in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma
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Pyruvate kinase is a key enzyme in the glycolysis pathway. It can catalyze the conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate to enolpyruvate and produce ATP, so it has an important physiological role. It has four isozymes, divided into L, R, M1 and M2. It is high in kidney and malignant tumor cells. We can diagnose its role in hepatocellular carcinoma based on its characteristics.
1. The role of pyruvate kinase isoenzymes in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma
The activity of pyruvate kinase increases in acute hepatitis, while the activity of pyruvate kinase decreases in patients with acute hepatic necrosis. M2-pyruvate kinase is not only subject to the fine regulation of tumor signal pathways, but also restricts the regulation of tumor signal pathways. The two are closely related: M2-pyruvate kinase can regulate the activity of tumor-related signal pathways and transcription factors, and it is itself Localization in cells is regulated by cancer-related signal pathways.
2. Transcription regulation is involved in tumor metabolism
HIF-1 mainly plays a role in the body's hypoxia condition and regulates the body's adaptability under hypoxia. Its main function is to induce hypoxia genes and restore the oxygen content of the cell's internal environment. M2-pyruvate kinase can increase the transcription level of HIF-1, and there is a positive feedback regulation between HIF-1 and M2-pyruvate kinase. In addition, M2-pyruvate kinase can also be located in the nucleus to participate in transcription regulation and post-translational modification of proteins.
3. Regulate tumor signaling pathways
Abnormal signal pathway conduction can cause many diseases, especially in tumors. M2-pyruvate kinase is involved in the regulation of tumor-related molecules by abnormal glycolysis pathway conduction, which is one of the current research hotspots.
4. Induce mitochondrial damage
Mitochondria is a dynamic organelle with a double-layer membrane structure, which constantly undergoes a dynamic balance of division and fusion. Important metabolisms such as oxidative phosphorylation, glutamine metabolism and ATP synthesis are all carried out in the mitochondria. Abnormal mitochondrial function breaks the normal life activity state of cells, and can induce cell canceration in severe cases. Mitochondrial dysfunction induced by expression of M2-pyruvate kinase is manifested as a decrease in ATP levels, an increase in mitochondrial DNA copy number and an increase in mitochondrial fusion protein 2 (mfn2), while knocking down M2-pyruvate kinase can reduce the expression of mfn2 protein and weaken M2 -Pyruvate kinase-mediated mitochondrial fusion and restoration of mitochondrial function.
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