The cold winter is the season of "everything is sleeping, but I grow meat", and the meat that grows is only fat, that is, fat. If these fats only increase, it will only be the next summer to show off. So how is the fat in the body metabolized? Let us understand how acetyl-CoA synthase and acetyl-CoA oxidase are involved in fat metabolism.
The full name of fat is triglyceride or triacylglyceride. It is a polyester composed of long-chain fatty acids and glycerol. It is a substance that can store a lot of energy in the body. When the carbohydrates in the body are not enough to provide energy, fat will begin to gradually break down to provide energy for the body. Fat itself is insoluble in water, so it has better stability. It is not easy to participate in the reaction or decomposition at room temperature. It can be gradually decomposed under the action of various enzymes in the body.
Acetyl-CoA synthase and oxidase are involved in fat metabolism
Hydrolysis of fats into free fatty acids and glycerin
The triglyceride (triglyceride) stored in the adipose tissue is gradually hydrolyzed by lipase into free fatty acid (FFA) and glycerol, which is released into the blood for the oxidation and utilization of various tissues throughout the body, which is called triacylglycerol mobilization. One molecule of fat is hydrolyzed by lipase into one molecule of glycerol and three molecules of fatty acid. Glycerol enters into sugar metabolism and oxidizes to release energy, or gluconeogenesis is converted into sugar or glycogen.
Acetyl-CoA synthase activated fatty acid
The free fatty acids obtained from fat hydrolysis enter the cell fluid and are activated by acetyl-CoA synthase (ACS) in the presence of ATP, CoA-SH, and Mg into fatty acyl-CoA. Fatty acyl CoA contains high-energy thioester bonds, and its water solubility increases, which significantly increases the metabolic activity of fatty acyl groups.
Acetyl-CoA oxidase breaks down fat
Fatty acid is activated into fatty acyl COA and then enters mitochondria. Acetyl-CoA oxidase (ACOD) and thiolase in the mitochondrial matrix can decompose long-chain fatty acyl COA through four steps of dehydrogenation, water addition, dehydrogenation and thiolysis. Continuous reaction, cleavage of fatty acyl group produces 1 molecule of acetyl CoA and 1 molecule of fatty acyl CoA with two carbon atoms less than the original. This is repeated until it is completely oxidized to acetyl CoA, which is finally oxidized to carbon dioxide and water.
Acetyl-CoA synthase and acetyl-CoA oxidase are also used in the field of biochemical testing. The enzyme preparations of these two enzymes from Desheng can be used in kits, fatty acid testing, glycerol testing, and triglyceride testing.
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