Heparin is a class of naturally occurring anticoagulants present in all mammals, hence its name because it was first isolated from liver tissue in 1916. Heparin is synthesized in mast cells and basophils and stored in the secretory granules of these cells. Since mast cells are present in many tissue types, heparin can be derived from this range of extrahepatic tissues. Currently, heparin preparations are often derived from the mucosal intima of pig intestines.
Heparin prevents blood clotting due to the unique pentasaccharide sequence contained in its structure that binds tightly to antithrombin 3. Antithrombin 3 is a plasma protein that inhibits blood clotting by binding to several activated coagulation factors, including factors such as XIa, Xa, IXa, and IIa (thrombin), which inhibit their enzymatic action. Heparin blocks the fibrin formed by the coagulation cascade, which is required for blood clot formation. This anticoagulant effect of heparin can occur in vitro and in vivo.
Heparin sodium is a natural heparin salt used in medicine and laboratories. Lithium heparin is a laboratory-specific in vitro anticoagulant prepared from sodium heparin by cation exchange chromatography. Heparin is the only anticoagulant used to prepare samples for blood gas analysis. Heparin can interfere with the results in two ways. The first is high heparin concentrations in the blood, and the second is heparin thinning the blood if liquid rather than dried (lyophilized) heparin is used.
Traditional blood gas analytes (pH, pCO2, and pO2) are less affected than electrolytes (especially ionized calcium), which are also measured by modern blood gas analyzers. Therefore, if only pH, pCO2, and pO2 are measured, the sample requirements are less stringent in the case of heparin. For these analytes, it is still important that the heparin (sodium or lithium) concentration is less than 200 IU/mL blood and the blood dilution does not exceed 5%. The electrolytes included in the test track preclude the use of sodium heparin and the use of lithium heparin.
One of the common practical problems associated with blood gas analysis is insufficient anticoagulation and the formation of small blood clots that can block the sample path of the blood gas analyzer and invalidate the results. Inadequate mixing of the sample with heparin is often the problem. The lower the heparin concentration, the greater the risk of insufficient anticoagulation and related problems due to poor mixing techniques.
Desheng Biochemical is a manufacturer specializing in the production of heparin sodium and heparin lithium for in vitro anticoagulants. Since its establishment in 2005, it has 17 years of rich R&D and inspection experience, and can accurately control the quality and potency of heparin. The conventional packaging of heparin produced by Desheng comes in 10g and 50g bottles, and the shelf life is 3 years. Since it is the source manufacturer, not only the quality is guaranteed, but the price is also very advantageous. Friends in need can contact customer service on the official website of Desheng to order.
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