Every time we go to the hospital for examination, blood tests are indispensable, and many causes of our bodies will be shown through blood tests. Serum is one of the main specimens for clinical biochemical and immune tests. At present, the means for medical institutions to obtain serum specimens are mainly obtained by collecting venous blood and centrifuging after the blood is completely coagulated. Under normal circumstances, it takes more than 60 minutes for the blood sample after coagulation to completely coagulate, or even not coagulate, which is difficult to meet the needs of rapid laboratory testing.
The blood coagulation mechanism is a process in which a series of coagulation factors are activated one after another and finally form a fibrin clot. If the blood coagulation rate is too fast, fibrin contraction also accelerates, and it is easy to squeeze the fragile red blood cells, causing them to rupture and cause mild hemolysis. The blood clot has a larger specific gravity than the serum, so the serum is above the blood clot. At this time, the lower end of the serum is still in contact with the upper end of the blood cell. The cells can still use the nutrients in the serum to lower the blood glucose measurement value, and the lactate dehydrogenase and serum potassium measurement values increase. In this case, the respective coagulant products came into being. The main function of the blood coagulant is to accelerate blood coagulation, that is, to shorten the blood coagulation time in vitro without affecting the necessary components of the blood and promote the separation of serum. When using serum separation gel to promote coagulation blood collection tubes, the separation gel has a larger specific gravity than serum and is smaller than a blood clot, resulting in the upper layer being serum, the middle layer being separation gel, and the lower layer being blood clots, so that various components in serum maintain physiological levels.
The natural coagulation of blood is related to temperature. Blood can coagulate in a glass test tube at 37°C in a water bath for 30 minutes. If the blood and the coagulant are centrifuged after the blood collection is not fully mixed or the blood is not completely coagulated, it is easy to form a fibrin jelly-like coagulation or the fibrin filaments have a smaller specific gravity than the blood clot, so they remain in the serum layer and partially adhere to Around the separation gel, if directly on the machine at this time, it will cause clogging of the analysis blood collection needle. Vacuum blood collection tubes for coagulants sometimes have filaments and lumps precipitated by fibrin. The main reason is that there is no standard use of blood collection tubes for coagulation.
Most accelerators use substances with physical and chemical properties as accelerators, such as silica powder, glass powder, silicon carbon, and snake venom, etc., which are made into powder through special processing and are evenly sprayed on the inner wall of the vacuum blood collection tube with a quantitative sprayer to achieve rapid acceleration. The purpose of condensation. The accelerator used in some imported accelerator tubes is composed of silica gel particles and biological additives. Different types of accelerators have different mechanisms.
Different kinds of procoagulants can act on endogenous coagulation pathway, exogenous coagulation pathway, and common coagulation pathway. Different types of coagulants have their own advantages and disadvantages, and their variety, performance, and concentration directly affect the characteristics of blood samples and test results. When manufacturers prepare coagulation tubes, they should be consistent in terms of variety and concentration, and can temporarily maintain their effectiveness, so as to minimize the effect of coagulants on the test results. Before the laboratory is used, it is necessary to understand the detailed information of the accelerator used by various manufacturers and select high-quality products, so as to achieve good control of the quality before analysis.
We should also pay attention to the following points when using blood coagulant:
1) coagulation time: the time required for the blood to reach full coagulation after contact with the coagulant.
2) Promoting coagulation efficiency: the relative amount of coagulant needed to achieve the best coagulation effect.
3) Coagulation effect: the amount of serum oozing after blood clotting.
4) Separation effect: After centrifugation, the blood after coagulation can achieve complete and clear separation of serum and whether hemolysis occurs.
5) Influence on essential components of blood: The use of coagulants cannot have a harmful effect on the clinical test results of blood and the performance and quality of blood products.
6) When it is found that there are impurities, foreign smells, abnormal colors and exceeding the expiration date in the accelerator;
7) This product is an organic solvent liquid, has a certain smell, is flammable, and has slight anesthetic properties.
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