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Wuhan Desheng Biochemical Technology Co., Ltd
Wuhan Desheng Biochemical Technology Co., Ltd
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Comparative study of anticoagulant tube heparin lithium and EDTA tube in blood sample collection

Comparative study of anticoagulant tube heparin lithium and EDTA tube in blood sample collection

Blood sample collection is an important part of modern medical diagnosis, and the selection of anticoagulants is crucial for ensuring sample quality, maintaining cell integrity, and ensuring accuracy in subsequent analysis. Among numerous anticoagulants, heparin lithium and EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) are the two commonly used, each with its own characteristics and suitable for different types of blood testing. This article aims to compare and study the application characteristics, advantages and disadvantages, and scope of application of lithium heparin tubes and EDTA tubes in blood sample collection, in order to provide reference for clinical practice and laboratory research.

1、 Anticoagulant mechanism and chemical properties

Heparin lithium is a natural polysaccharide anticoagulant extracted from animal tissues. It mainly enhances the activity of antithrombin III, thereby inhibiting the activity of thrombin and other coagulation factors, achieving the goal of anticoagulation. Compared to other salt forms such as sodium and ammonium salts, heparin lithium has better water solubility and stability, making it more suitable for whole blood cell analysis and certain biochemical tests. Due to its ability to interact with various proteins, heparin may interfere with certain blood tests, especially those that rely on calcium ions for coagulation function testing.

EDTA is a synthetic chelating agent that combines with calcium ions in the blood to form a stable complex, thereby preventing calcium ions from participating in the coagulation process and achieving anticoagulant effects. EDTA-K2 (potassium ethylenediaminetetraacetate) is a commonly used form of EDTA salt, suitable for routine hematological tests such as blood cell counting and classification, as it has a relatively small impact on the morphology and quantity of blood cells. However, the inhibitory effect of EDTA on platelet function limits its application in testing that requires evaluation of platelet function.


2、 Application scope and advantages

Lithium heparin tubes are particularly suitable for blood gas analysis, hematocrit tests, and some biochemical tests due to their mild and stable anticoagulant effects. Heparin lithium can effectively maintain the original state of blood components, reducing possible cellular damage and metabolic changes during sample processing. Therefore, it is more advantageous for immediate detection (POCT) and testing items that require quick results in emergency situations. However, it should be noted that heparin has an aggregation effect on white blood cells and is not suitable for white blood cell counting and classification, and may interfere with the determination of specific enzyme activity.

EDTA tubes are widely used in hematological tests, such as whole blood cell count (CBC), white blood cell classification, and red blood cell morphology, due to their ability to prevent blood clotting. The anticoagulant effect of EDTA is stable and reliable, and it has little impact on the morphology of blood cells. It is the standard anticoagulant for blood cell counting. However, the samples collected by EDTA tubes are not suitable for coagulation function testing, as the chelation of calcium ions can affect the determination of indicators such as prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT).

3、 Comparison and selection

When selecting anticoagulants, it is necessary to clarify the testing purpose. If the detection focuses on blood gas analysis, biochemical indicators (non calcium dependent), or needs to maintain the physiological activity of blood components, heparin lithium tubes are the preferred choice. When the focus of detection is on routine hematological indicators, especially when counting and classifying blood cells, EDTA tubes are more suitable. It is worth noting that for situations where both blood cell count and biochemical testing are required, separate sample collection or the use of dual anticoagulant tubes should be considered to avoid mutual interference between anticoagulants affecting the detection results.

In summary, the applications of lithium heparin tubes and EDTA tubes in blood sample collection have their own advantages, and selecting appropriate anticoagulants is the key to ensuring the accuracy of test results. Clinical doctors and laboratory technicians need to fully understand the characteristics of various anticoagulants, select anticoagulant tubes reasonably based on specific testing needs, optimize sample processing flow, and improve testing quality and efficiency. In the future, with the development and application of new anticoagulants, blood sample collection technology will become more refined, providing more possibilities for medicine. As a raw material supplier in the biochemical market, Desheng provides high-quality heparin lithium, EDTA K2 anticoagulants, and other blood collection additives, all at a low price. If you have any relevant intentions, please click on the website to inquire about details and purchase!