In recent years, chemiluminescence immunoassay methods have been increasingly favored by people due to their high sensitivity, strong specificity, wide application range, simple equipment required, and wide linear range. They are used in life sciences, clinical medicine, environment, and food. , Medicine and other fields have been widely used. Chemiluminescence immunoassay is an analysis technique that combines highly sensitive chemiluminescence detection with highly specific immune response to detect various antigens, haptens, antibodies, hormones, enzymes, fatty acids, vitamins and drugs.
What is chemiluminescence immunoassay?
Chemiluminescence analysis is an analysis method that determines the content of a substance based on the intensity of the radiant light produced by a chemical reaction. Chemiluminescence immunoassay is to combine the chemiluminescence system with the immune response, label antibodies or antigens with chemiluminescence-related substances, and after reacting with the antigen or antibody to be tested, the free chemiluminescence markers are separated and added to the chemiluminescence system. Other related substances produce chemiluminescence for quantitative or qualitative detection of antigens or antibodies. The four most commonly used markers in chemiluminescence immunoassays are luminol, isoluminol and their derivatives, acridinium ester derivatives, peroxidase and alkaline phosphatase.
Classification of chemiluminescence immunoassay:
According to the different labels and luminescence principles used in chemiluminescence, it can generally be divided into three categories: direct chemiluminescence immunoassay, enzymatic chemiluminescence immunoassay and electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Different from the former two, electrochemiluminescence generates light signal by electrochemical reaction of electrochemiluminescence agent on the surface of the electrically activated electrode. Co-reactants are often needed to improve the luminous efficiency, such as tripropylamine (TPA) as ruthenium terpyridine ([ Rb(bpy)3]2+) electron donor co-reactant. Commonly used light-emitting systems are: acridine esters, luminol (luminol), terpyridine ruthenium, peroxy oxalate (TCPO, DNPO) and strong oxidant potassium permanganate, Ce (SO4) 2 etc. (see Chart 1 below). Some luminescent agents react slowly with oxidants, and they also need the role of catalysts and enhancers to improve luminous intensity and stability.
Application of chemiluminescence immunoassay:
The chemiluminescence immunoassay method not only has the high sensitivity of chemiluminescence analysis, but also has the high specificity of immune response. It has a wide range of applications and development prospects in the fields of clinical diagnosis, food safety and environmental monitoring.
1. Fast chemiluminescence immunoassay method
Traditional immunoassay methods often take several hours to complete. The long incubation time also leads to the adsorption of immunoreagents on the inner wall of the pipeline, which increases the signal crossover between different assays, thus limiting the detection throughput of samples and the effectiveness of immunoassay methods. Value. In order to overcome these shortcomings and achieve high throughput of immunoassays, the external field drive or effective solution mixing strategy can be used to accelerate the mass transfer rate of antigens, antibodies and other biological macromolecules, or increase the temperature of the reaction system to accelerate the kinetics of the immune response. , So as to achieve rapid immune detection.
2. Multi-component chemiluminescence immunoassay method
The simultaneous realization of multi-component detection in a single analysis process has outstanding advantages such as high analysis throughput, short time required, less sample consumption, and low analysis cost. It is the long-term goal pursued by immunoassay and is also the research of immunoassay in recent years Hot spot.
3. Highly sensitive chemiluminescence immunoassay method
In actual detection, the sensitivity and specificity of the existing detection methods are not ideal, and high-sensitivity and high-selectivity detection methods are increasingly showing their importance. The development of nanotechnology provides an opportunity for the development of highly sensitive chemiluminescence immunoassay methods. Nanoparticles have been widely used in biomarker analysis, and there have been a variety of signal amplification methods used in the construction of highly sensitive immunoassay methods.
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