Luminol is commonly used in forensic medicine as a diagnostic tool for detecting blood stains. Most crime scene investigations (called criminology) are based on the fact that no traces will not disappear, and small blood particles will stick to most surfaces for many years. Luminol reveals these traces through luminescent chemical reactions between several chemicals and hemoglobin (an oxygen-carrying protein in the blood).
Nucleic acid determination
The luminescent oxygen channel immunoassay (LOCI) type detection method is also suitable for the detection of single nucleotide polymorphism types. Other detection methods based on luminescent nucleic acids include the detection of infectious diseases combined with nucleic acid amplification technology, such as polymerase chain reaction, such as telomere DNA, herpes simplex, Lassa fever virus and Trichomonas vaginalis.
HRP molecules catalyze the luminescence reaction between luminol and H2O2 to produce an enhanced luminescence signal. Under optimal conditions, the luminescence intensity depends on the surface coverage of HRP molecules (related to the concentration of p53 protein), and linearly increases with the concentration of p53 protein between 0.01-0.5 nM. The estimated detection limit is 3.8 pM. This assay is a successful method for detecting p53 protein in normal and cancer cell lysates.
Another successful research application of CL is the detection of gene expression products developed as a substitute for the traditional chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene. Chemiluminescent dioxetane and luminol derivative substrates can also be used to detect and quantify the gene expression products of placental alkaline phosphatase, β-galactosidase and β-glucuronidase. These measurements are sensitive and have a linear range on several orders of magnitude.
The existing cell location methods are not enough. Therefore, the enhanced luminescence of luminol or luminol emitted by polymorphonuclear neutrophils or phagocytes or biological fluids (such as whole blood) is an important tool for cell-based research (including respiratory burst research).
In routine laboratory research experiments, Western blotting is used to quantify proteins. Western blotting is widely used to study steady-state protein levels, biosynthesis and turnover rates, the effects of mutations on protein stability, and the effects of pharmacological compounds on protein expression.
Luminol can be used to determine the content of metal ions. A method for determining the content of iron ions in seawater has been established and used for marine environmental monitoring.
The myoglobin-luminol system is used to detect the drug Aniracetam, which is used for the treatment of the central nervous system. The myoglobin conjugate complex of Anracetam catalyzes the CL reaction of luminol, which is enhanced compared with the CL reaction without Anracetam. This method is also used to determine cefazolin sodium in injections and human urine.
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