Since the discovery of heparin, it has been widely used to prevent and treat various thromboembolic diseases because of its rapid onset, definite curative effect, and anticoagulant effect can be reversed. However, there are many types of heparin drugs with similar names, such as heparin, low-molecular-weight heparin, enoxaparin, natraheparin, etc., which can easily lead to confusion. What exactly are heparin drugs, what types are they, and how are heparins different?
How is heparin extracted? In 1916, Jay Mclean of John Hopkins University in the United States first discovered a substance with anticoagulant effect from animal liver, so the substance was named "heparin". Later, heparin was found in many organs of mammals. At present, most of the medicinal heparin is extracted from the intestinal mucosa of pigs and lungs of pigs and cattle.
What are the types of heparin?
Heparin is mainly divided into ordinary heparin (UFH), low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), heparin derivatives (such as fondaparinux), heparin analogs (such as danaparin).
What does unfractionated heparin mean? Unfractionated heparin is a mixture of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). It is a mucopolysaccharide sulfate composed of alternating D-glucosamine, L-iduronic acid, and D-glucuronic acid. Or made from the intestinal mucosa of cattle, sheep and pigs.
What are the low molecular weight heparins?
Low molecular weight heparin is a short-chain preparation isolated from ordinary heparin or degraded by ordinary heparin. Due to differences in molecular size, anticoagulant activity, preparation methods, manufacturers, etc., clinically used low molecular weight heparins include enoxaparin, dalteparin, natraparin, etc.
What are heparin analogues?
Heparin analogue actually refers to a substance similar to heparin, which is somewhat similar in chemical structure to heparin, an acidic substance with anticoagulant activity, heparin analogue danaparin sodium is a mixture of sulfated aminodextran , Also prepared from pig intestinal mucosa, the main components are heparan sulfate, dermatan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate. Indana heparin sodium is rarely used clinically.
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