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Wuhan Desheng Biochemical Technology Co., Ltd
Wuhan Desheng Biochemical Technology Co., Ltd
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Why choose EDTA K2 anticoagulant for blood type identification?

Why choose EDTA K2 anticoagulant for blood type identification?

In the field of hematological testing, blood type identification is a fundamental and crucial test, which has profound significance for blood transfusion, organ transplantation matching, and genetic research. Among the many available anticoagulants, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid dipotassium salt (EDTA K2) is widely used as the standard anticoagulant for blood type identification, which contains profound scientific considerations and practical advantages. This article will explore why EDTA K2 has become an anticoagulant for blood type identification from multiple dimensions, including its anticoagulant mechanism, impact on blood cell morphology and blood type antigens, ease of operation, comparison with other anticoagulants, and its clinical and scientific applications.


1、 The anticoagulant mechanism of EDTA K2

EDTA K2 belongs to the salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and is known for its strong chelating ability, especially its ability to effectively bind calcium ions (Ca ²+) in the blood. Calcium ions play a core role in the process of blood coagulation, participating in key steps such as activation of prothrombin and conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin. EDTA K2 forms a stable complex with calcium ions, blocking the calcium dependent coagulation pathway and preventing blood clotting. This feature ensures that the blood sample remains liquid after collection, facilitating subsequent detection and analysis.

2、 Effects on blood cell morphology and blood type antigens

Maintaining the natural morphology of blood cells and the integrity of blood type antigens is crucial in blood type identification. EDTA K2 has a relatively small impact on the integrity of the red blood cell membrane while chelating calcium ions, avoiding false positive or false negative results caused by changes in cell morphology. In addition, it does not affect the expression of blood type antigens, ensuring the accuracy of blood type identification. In contrast, certain anticoagulants such as heparin may affect platelet function and interfere with the recognition of blood type antigens, while sodium citrate may alter the volume and morphology of red blood cells, affecting blood type determination.

3、 Convenience of operation and sample stability

A significant advantage of EDTA K2 lies in its ease of use. It can be attached to the inner wall of the blood collection vessel through the spray drying technology to ensure that the anticoagulant and blood are quickly and evenly mixed during the blood collection process, without additional operation steps. In addition, EDTA K2 anticoagulant blood samples can maintain stability for a long time under refrigeration conditions, facilitating transportation and storage, which is particularly important for cross regional blood type identification. This stability also allows the laboratory enough time to conduct detailed testing after receiving the sample, without worrying about the timeliness of the blood sample.


4、 Comparison with other anticoagulants

Compared with commonly used heparin and sodium citrate, EDTA K2 has a more significant specificity advantage in blood type identification. Although heparin can effectively anticoagulate, it may interfere with the activity of certain enzymes, affect platelet function, and is not suitable for measuring platelet count and enzyme activity. Sodium citrate is mainly used for extracorporeal circulation and emergency anticoagulation. Its anticoagulation mechanism depends on the chelation of calcium ions and alkalization of blood, which may cause red blood cell swelling and affect the accuracy of blood type identification. EDTA K2 is relatively mild and has less interference with blood cells, making it more suitable for blood type identification, which is highly sensitive to cell morphology and antigen expression.


In summary, the reason why EDTA K2 has become the preferred choice for anticoagulants in blood type identification is because its anticoagulant mechanism can effectively prevent blood coagulation without damaging blood cell structure, maintain the true expression of blood type antigens, and demonstrate comprehensive advantages in ease of operation, sample stability, and comparison with other anticoagulants. These characteristics ensure the accuracy and reliability of blood type identification, and play an irreplaceable role in promoting relevant scientific research progress.

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